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古往今来安阳史

所属教程:旅游英语口语

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2020年06月30日

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1.古往今来安阳史

1. History

安阳位于河南省最北部,处于山西、河北、河南3省的交会处,西边是太行山,北边临着漳河,东南与华北平原接壤。安阳地区是中国有史可考的建立城邦较早的地区。早在旧石器时代就有人类在这里居住。商代早期,安阳叫做“相”“殷”。公元前14世纪,商王盘庚迁都到殷(今安阳小屯一带),建都时间达273年,安阳也因此成为中国的七大古都之一。

In the northernmost part of Henan province, a place where the three provinces of Shanxi, Henan and Hebei meets, there lies a city named Anyang surrounded by Taihang Mountains in the west, Zhanghe River in the north and the North China Plain in the southeast. As remote as in the Paleolithic Era, human traces could be found here.

●安阳殷墟鸟瞰图

Around the 16th century BC, the second slavery country in the Chinese history-the Shang dynasty-was founded. In order to stabilize the turbulent new country, around 14th century BC, the twelfth king of the Shang dynasty whose name was Pan'geng made the decision to move the country's capital into the place where today's Anyang is and changed the name of the place from Xiang to Yin. Since then, Yin, a land with rich soil and abundant water resources, remained capital for 273 years until the demise of Shang. Thus Anyang is among the first early cities in the Chinese history and one of the renowned ancient capital cities in China.

公元前16世纪,中国历史上第二个奴隶制国家商朝建立。刚刚建立的商王朝政局不稳,在很长一段时间内多次出现衰败的局面,为了扭转这种局面,商朝的第二十位统治者盘庚决定迁都到北蒙(今安阳地区),并改名为“殷”。这一地区土壤肥沃,水源充足,极其适宜农业的发展;自盘庚迁都到此后,商朝以后的继承者一直都在这里定都,直到商朝灭亡,历时200多年。因此,商朝也叫“殷商”。从这一名称我们也可以看出殷在商朝的重要地位。

●Bird's eye view of the Yin Ruins in Anyang

商朝在这里定都后,政局渐渐稳定下来,经济开始繁荣,生产开始迅速发展,中国的奴隶社会也进入了繁荣时期。商朝人在这里创造了光辉灿烂的业绩,国家机构进一步完善,以青铜冶铸为代表的手工业和农业生产迅速发展。传说商朝人善于经营农业,从当时的农业生产工具可以看出当时的农业已经有了很大的发展。农作物品种也十分丰富,人们已经掌握了一系列的耕作技术,粮食产量也有了大幅度的提高,并出现剩余,这从甲骨文关于商朝酿酒的记载中便可以得知。农业发展的同时人们开始畜养牲畜。农业和畜牧业的发展也为商业的发展创造了条件,早期的商业贸易开始出现。当时还有了关于日食和月食的记载,是世界上最早有确切日期的记录;科技文化也取得了巨大进步。这一时期殷一直是商朝的政治、经济和文化中心。

Chinese slavery society welcomed its heydays after Shang moved its capital, as the political system was gradually consummated and rapid development occurred in the field of bronze production and agricultural production. Shang people were good at farming. Various agricultural tools used at that time and series of farming techniques mastered by people made more varied and even surplus produce available. This can be proven by the inscriptions of wine making on bones or tortoise shells of the Shang dynasty. Meanwhile, people began to raise livestock. And all these ensured the early trade. Records also show that people already noticed solar and lunar eclipses, which was the earliest with exact dates all over the world. Great progress was also made in science and technology as well as in culture. All in all, Yin stayed the political, economical and cultural center of the period.

商朝的最后一位国王纣十分凶残暴虐,生活奢侈,不理政事,社会矛盾急剧恶化。同时,西部的周开始强大起来,双方在殷附近展开了一场激战,这就是中国历史上著名的“牧野之战”。这场战役以商的失败而告终,商朝随之灭亡,繁华的殷都也毁于战火,变成废墟。

King Zhou, the last King of the Shang dynasty, was especially cruel, and he gave little attention to government affairs and conflicts in every field became fierce. Meanwhile, Zhou, a kingdom in the west became stronger. Zhou and Shang had a battle near Yin, which was known as "War at Muye" in Chinese history. Shang ended up the defeated and its capital Yin also turned ruins in the flames of war.

直到春秋战国时期,安阳地区才开始重新繁荣起来,这一时期,黄河流域一直是全国的政治、经济中心,安阳地区的政治、军事、经济地位十分重要,在这里兴起了两座十分重要的城市--邺城和安阳。春秋时期齐桓公为了抵御外族的入侵,在占据了殷都旧地之后便在这里修筑了邺城。晋国强大以后把安阳地区从魏国手中夺去,“安阳”的名称也是在这一时期出现的。

Anyang did not find its next spring until the Spring and Autumn-Warring States period, when the region along the Yellow River gained its military, as well as political and economic importance. Two cities were built: Yecheng and Anyang. The former was built on the ruins of Yin by Duke Huan of Qi state in the Spring and Autumn period for defense purpose. Jin state took over Anyang from Wei State by force, and gave the city the present name.

秦朝建立以后,在安阳置县,隶属于邯郸郡,汉代废除安阳县,将安阳划入汤阴县。

After the Qin dynasty was founded, Anyang became a county of Handan prefecture. But it was made part of Tangyin county in the Han dynasty.

曹魏时期,曹操定都邺。邺成了北方的实际统治中心,安阳地区又重新繁荣起来。曹操在这里定都的原因是:这里人口众多,粮食充足,有雄厚的经济基础;另一方面,它处于北方的中心,地位重要。

In the Three Kingdoms period, Ye was appointed by Cao Cao the capital of Wei and became the governance center of the north. Thus Anyang came to its glory again. The reason Cao Cao chose the place to be the capital is obvious: Anyang enjoyed economic advantage due to a dense population and abundant food supply. Moreover, situated in the center of the north, the city was of strategic importance.

●曹操像

●Portrait of Cao Cao

南北朝时期的东魏、北齐也都曾在这里建都,历时近半个世纪。由于当时佛教盛行,佛教思想迅速发展,佛教建筑兴盛,直到今天还保留了众多佛教遗址。

Then for nearly half a century in the period of Southern and Northern Dynasties, Anyang was the capital of Eastern Wei and Northern Qi successively. Numerous Buddhist buildings that have been preserved can still remind today's visitors of the glory of Buddhism in those days.

西晋初年,重新设置了安阳县,属于魏郡。隋朝时将安阳地区的殷和邺合并,后来又把邺县改为安阳县。在唐朝初期,安阳地区的地位也十分重要,这里曾设置都督府。

In the Sui dynasty, Yin and Ye were united into one, and Ye later was named Anyang county. In the Tang dynasty, given the importance of Anyang, the royal court established a governor-general office there.

宋代以后,安阳的地位开始日趋衰落。

After the Song dynasty, however, Anyang gradually lost its importance.


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